SPUR™ Phase 2 US study: final results

To access the SPUR™ research website, click here


The aim of this study was to evaluate and refine the psychometric properties of the SPUR™ questionnaire to develop its scoring algorithm.

The 3 key outputs to keep in mind

  • The validation of the scoring algorithm
  • The validation that SPUR™ measures non-adherence
  • SPUR™ covers the entirety of the adherence behavior continuum without gaps


Data were collected through an online survey among individuals with type 2 diabetes in the United States. 501 participants completed multiple questionnaires, including SPUR™ and several validated adherence measures.

POSTER US Phase 2 Final Results January 2022

A Partial Credit Model (PCM) analysis was performed to evaluate the structure of the SPUR™ tool and verify the assumption of a single underlying latent variable reflecting adherence. The Item Characteristic Curve (ICC) of each SPUR™ item was computed to verify whether the response options were ordered in accordance with the scoring function specifications. A Person-Item Map was constructed.

Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were conducted to confirm the four SPUR™ dimensions (S, P, U, R) and identify which hierarchically-defined items within each dimension needed to be answered by a patient.

Lastly, correlations were calculated between the latent trait of SPUR™ adherence and the other patient-reported adherence measures MMAS-8 and BMQ.


The statistical analysis confirmed SPUR™ measures #non-adherence in T2D population. The Partial Credit Model used showcased that SPUR™ responses revealed one underlying latent trait, which was well correlated with the validated non-adherence tools MMAS-8 and BMQ.

Additionally, the Person-Item Map demonstrated that the SPUR™ items covered the entirety of the adherence behavior continuum without gaps.

These results suggest that SPUR™ can be used for efficient detection and profiling of patients facing adherence issues, and for the design of personalized patient support solutions.

                                                            Read the full publication 

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See also

Scientific communications

A multiple-cohort analysis of the SPUR 6/24 patient-reported adherence tool


Clinical Ink and Observia: Pioneering Personalized Patient Engagement in Clinical Trials


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